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说的长与短

       2004年8月,《长篇小说选刊》创刊的时候,作家莫言应邀题词:“长度、密度和难度,是长篇小说的标志,也是这伟大文体的尊严。”
 
       两年后,莫言专门写了一篇长文《捍卫长篇小说的尊严》,阐述这次题字的内容。关于“长度”,他这样解释:“所谓长度,自然是指小说的篇幅。没有二十万字以上的篇幅,长篇小说就缺少应有的威严。就像金钱豹子,虽然也勇猛,虽然也剽悍,但终因体形稍逊,难成山中之王。我当然知道许多篇幅不长的小说其力量和价值都胜过某些臃肿的长篇,我当然也知道许多篇幅不长的小说已经成为经典,但那种犹如长江大河般的波澜壮阔之美,却是那些精巧的篇什所不具备的。长篇就是要长,不长算什么长篇?要把长篇写长,当然很不容易。我们惯常听到的是把长篇写短的呼吁,我却在这里呼吁:长篇就是要往长里写!当然,把长篇写长,并不是事件和字数的累加,而是一种胸中的大气象,一种艺术的大营造。”
 
       莫言认为,大沟壑、大山脉、大气象是“长篇胸怀”的外在表现;大苦闷、大悲悯、大抱负,天马行空般的大精神,落了片白茫茫大地真干净的大感悟——这些都是“长篇胸怀”之内涵。如果缺乏足够的长度,则不足以展现“长篇胸怀”。他还认为:“长篇越来越短,与流行有关,与印刷与包装有关,与利益有关,与浮躁心态有关,也与那些盗版影碟有关。”
 
       其实长篇小说写得短,也可能与小说技术有关,与出版人的理念有关。小长篇的流行既可能是作者的自觉选择,也可能是出版者基于某一判断推波助澜的结果。本世纪初我参与策划北京十月文艺出版社出版一套“十月小长篇丛书”,就是基于此前我和作家马原聊天所达成的共识:小说应该写得好看;小说写得太长,不一定增加艺术分量,而且容易沉闷、不好看。就当时我们感觉到的中国作家讲故事能力而言,比较短的长篇小说,八九万字至十五六万字,是比较恰当的长度,年轻作家初写长篇更是如此。长篇小说要求作家对所叙述故事整体上具有极强的控制能力,小长篇是中篇小说与长篇小说之间的恰当过度,缓冲余地比较大。 长篇巨制需要深厚的历史、思想、文化积淀,作者须有丰富的人生阅历,目前中国这样的作家少有。文学出版只能因地制宜,不能拔苗助长。此外,现代人生活节奏在加快,小长篇比较适合现代读者的阅读习惯。马原当时说他计划写一个小长篇,像《廊桥遗梦》一样,读者可以揣在兜里,坐着火车一口气读完。他的长篇新作《牛鬼蛇神》,问世于这次谈话的十六年后,但篇幅长达三十五万字,——马原可能已经改变了初衷。
 
       汪曾祺先生写过多篇足以传世的优秀短篇小说,但他没写过长篇小说,这跟他对长篇小说的观点有关。其子汪朗回忆说:“他(汪曾祺)认为,长篇小说就其体裁来说就不自然,就不符合生活的真实情况。生活是由一个个片段组成的,有的精彩有的平常,短篇小说所取的是其中的精彩片段,而长篇要构成体系,非要各种事实都串起来,难免良莠不齐。再有,长篇小说已经不能适应现代社会快速发展的节奏……他们读小说都是抓空,没心思去听作家的长篇宏论,没时间读那么多的抒情、对话、风景描写、心理刻画。他们又是成熟的人,不想听人说教。这些都是长篇小说常有的东西,因此,长篇小说从形式上说已经落伍了。”
 
       汪先生对中外长篇小说评价都不高。80年代初,他对儿女们表示,中国让他服气的小说家只有三人:鲁迅,沈从文,孙犁。这三位都是中短篇小说作家,沈从文的《长河》是短篇组合成的小长篇,鲁迅先生虽有长篇小说写作计划,但未能实施。
 
       有证据表明,晚年汪曾祺曾经应出版社之约,设想写一部历史题材的长篇小说《汉武帝》,并为此做了大量准备工作,但年高力衰终未遂愿。这似乎也说明,汪先生关于小说长短的观点后来有所改变。
 
       沈从文先生也许并不甘心只做一个短篇小说作家。1942年5月,沈先生在西南联大国文学会做了一个题为“短篇小说”的演讲,提到他作为短篇小说(当时还没有中篇小说这一概念)作家为这一文体感受到的委屈:“长篇小说从作品中铸造人物,铺叙故事又无限制,近二十年来社会的变,近五年来世界的变,影响到一人或一群人的事,无一不可以组织到故事中。一个长篇如安排得法,即可得到历史的意义,历史的价值,它且更容易从旧小说读者中吸收那个多数读者,它的成功伟大性是极显明的。戏剧娱乐性多,容易成为大时代中都会的点缀物,能繁荣商业市面,也能繁荣政治市面,所以不仅好作品容易露面,即本身十分浅薄的作品,有时说不定在官定价值和市定价值两方面,都被抬得高高的。就中唯有短篇小说,费力而不容易讨好,将不免和目前我们这个学校中的“国文系”情形相同,在习惯上还存在,事实上却好象对社会不大有什么用处,无出路是命定了的。”同时沈先生也承认,新文学二十余年“作者多,读者多,影响大,成就好,实应当推短篇小说”。而究其原因,“小说发展得平平常常,规规矩矩,不如诗那么因自由而受反对,又不如戏那么因庄严而抱期望,可是在极短期间中却已经得到读者认可继续下去。先从学生方面取得读者,随即从社会方面取得更多的读者,因此奠定了新文学基础,并奠定了新出版业的基础。”这似乎提前四十年印证了汪曾祺先生的判断:短篇小说因为篇幅原因,可以拥有更多的读者。
 
       然而这些推理、这些论断,先辈们的选择,莫言先生早已做过深入思考,他说:“一味强调长篇之长,很容易招致现成的反驳,鲁迅、沈从文、张爱玲、契诃夫、博尔赫斯,都是现成的例子。我当然不否认上列的作家都是优秀的或者是伟大的作家,但他们不是列夫•托尔斯泰、陀思妥耶夫斯基、托马斯•曼、乔伊斯、普鲁斯特那样的作家,他们的作品里没有上述这些作家的皇皇巨作里那样一种波澜壮阔的浩瀚景象,这大概也是不争的事实。”“也许会有人说,在当今这个时代,太长的小说谁人要看?其实,要看的人,再长也看;不看的人,再短也不看。长,不是影响那些优秀读者的根本原因。”
 
       莫言天才纵横,不仅仅在于他有源源不断的创造力,还在于他有千山独行的勇气和自信,虽千万人吾往矣的决绝气势:“长篇小说不能为了适应某些读者而缩短自己的长度、减小自己的密度、降低自己的难度。我就是要这么长,就是要这么密,就是要这么难,愿意看就看,不愿意看就不看。哪怕只剩下一个读者,我也要这样写。”
 
       众所周知,莫言成功了,现在他拥有了亿万个中外读者。但艺术规律不是成王败寇,不是非此即彼,相左的意见会同时存在合理性。后来者当深思明辨,选择最适合自己的路径。
 
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