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艰难的精神寻根之旅

艰难的精神寻根之旅
——读《土司和他的子孙们》
雷达
 
       在新时期以来的长篇小说中,书写少数民族文化的不少,尤以阿来的《尘埃落定》独树一帜,范稳的《水乳大地》“新”人耳目。最近甘肃作家阿寅出版了《土司和他的子孙们》(作家出版社),同样书写了一段民族交融、文化碰撞的历史,展现了藏汉交融地区原生态的民族生活风貌,在此背景下,进行着现代人的艰难的精神寻根之旅。
       作者着力呈示的,是青藏高原与黄土高原交界处积石山地区藏汉民族文化交融的生活,在这个意义上,它堪称是一块原生态民族文化的活化石。作者以时空交错的手法,通过“我”这个当代人,将明代以降的不同时段巧妙缝合起来。“我”从小因家庭成份不好,备受欺辱,心灵和身体都变得病态,“我”把命运看做儿歌中的小黑甲壳虫,难逃“不上杠就抽肠”的悲剧。“我”,少了祖先勇于承担的精神,多了优柔寡断的逃避意识,几乎无力面对一切,包括爱情。
       在颓败的精神中,“我”开始了对于英勇无畏的土司祖先精神的追寻。老祖宗锁南普经常出现在“我”的梦中,像一个神,骑着心爱的雪鬃马,越过高高的积石山,在西番庄的上空,久久地盘旋。土司锁南普是“我”的祖先,他不得不以“最后一个”的形象出现,但他浑身充满了血性,原始的生命强力在他的身上贲张——他几乎是现代人对祖先的原始崇拜的图腾。少年时即杀死庞大的狗熊,他的名声像风一样吹遍了草原。他的一切似乎都很遂心,他拥有辽阔的草原、肥美的猎场、成群的牛羊,可惜多情的性格和旺盛的性欲给他带来了毁灭性的灾难。他因为一个叫卓玛的姑娘而受到结怨的索朗土司的羞辱与玩弄,于是乎,两个土司之间的血战发生了。盛装的女人们赶到土司府前的广场上,唱起古老的出征歌,为她们的男人送行:“豹子在凶险的森林里取胜,男人在杀敌的战场上取胜,女人在新婚的夜里取胜……” 锁南普不幸在这场战争中彻底失败,他在白色神石的庇佑下逃到了山北面的西番庄,游牧的土司变成了耕种的农民。他找了个不起眼的妻子,成为一个普通的多子的老农,锁南普无怨无悔,能伸能屈。他的无畏精神则成为后人仰以生活的精神背景和遥远而又可亲的巨大存在。
       土司锁南普的倔强个性在一代代子孙身上或多或少地呈现出来,但一些优秀的品质却也在一代代消隐,淡化。“我”的祖父王烧子被四世鲁丹巴活佛预言“面带凶相,目含煞气,恐日后没有好归宿”。及至长大成人,赌掉了所有家产,仓皇出逃。他重返西番庄后,张扬毒辣,常以“番子”后代自居,经常给别喊:“叫你们见识一下番劲儿!”最具悲剧性的人物是“我”的大伯——五世鲁丹巴活佛。他因为父母违背常理的婚姻,无法忍受别人的冷嘲热讽,在13岁那年离家出走进了喇嘛寺,偏偏又被选中做了鲁丹巴活佛的转世灵童。他所在的积石山喇嘛寺,是一个见证了藏汉文化交融的寺院,原本高僧辈出、殿舍林立,却在一场浩劫之后成为乱草丛生的废墟。这场人为的浩劫恰恰发生在五世鲁丹巴活佛,也就是“我”大伯的身上。他先是因为一个浑身散发着黄菊花香味的女子而动情,心魔由此而生,这个深爱着活佛的女子竟然也叫卓玛。卓玛在小说中具有象征性。这个名字原意为仙女,象征着锁南普及其后代对美、对健康的原始生命的热爱与追求。大伯一见到黄菊花就紧张难以自持。这样一个人却在浩劫中受尽造反派的污辱而后自尽,自尽之后灵魂久不散去。他的悲剧既是时代的悲剧,也是人性的悲剧。
       与作品中这些丰富的、立体的土司的后代形象交相辉映的,是作者对于原生态文化的呈现。小说中大量写到了当地的民俗,诸如花儿、贤孝、傩舞、打调、秧歌、财宝神、祭礼等等,这些来自原生态民族文化的词语闪现着迥异于其它地区的光芒,它们是积石山脚下的民生所独有的,无法复制,无法替代。小说还大量使用了独特的河州方言,虽不做解释,意思却一目了然。譬如:“缺灰馍馍”、“倒灶”、“言喘”、“看不松”、“前一向”、“活泛”、“羊脚巴”等等。而某些方言叙述的短句更是妙趣横生:“人生好比打墙的板,上下里翻,无定然。”
       大西北丰厚多彩的民俗文化是写不尽的,把这些即将消亡或已经消亡的原生态文明保存在小说里,并将当时人们的生存方式与现实生活做一对照,会引发当代人深刻的文化思考。正如本书首尾两章呼应的题名“缘起”和“缘灭”一样,土司文化早已尘埃落定,而“我”对它的追逐则永远没有结束。“我”的梦境就是一个艰难的精神寻根之路,“快来吧,孩子,要不就来不及了”,锁南普的声音仍在长空回荡。 
 
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